Queen's University IRC

Labour Relations

Two Tier Wage Systems

The purpose of this paper is to examine in more detail the nature and scope of two-tier wage systems in a Canadian context. The plan of the paper is as follows: first, it will examine the form which two-tier settlements have taken and provide some data on their prevalence. Second, it will examine possible legal implications of two-tier agreements, and in particular, whether a union which agrees to a lower wage rate for new hires risks violating its duty of fair representation. The final section assesses the long-term viability of two-tier wage systems.

Employee Benefits and The Part-time Worker: Legal and Economic Issues

This paper attempts to examine part-time employment from both a legal and economic perspective, looking at the extent of part-time employment, the compensation arrangements for part-time employees with particular emphasis on benefits other than wages, and the apparent inequities in these arrangements. The treatment of part-time workers under existing employment standards and collective bargaining legislation is reviewed and the potential impact of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms is examined.

Recent Wage Deceleration: Short-Run Response or Structural Change?

Since 1982, wage inflation in Canada has shown a pronounced deceleration. Wage settlements and rates of increase in various measures of earnings have declined to their lowest level in the past 25 years. Wage cuts, wage freezes, de-indexing, and flexible compensation in the form of two-tier wage systems and lump-sum payments in lieu of wage increases have become a frequent occurrence in collective bargaining. This wage experience is somewhat of a novelty for Canada, and is also unique among OECD countries.

Part-time, Casual and Other Atypical Workers: A Legal View

Most academic labour lawyers in Canada are used to focussing their attention on the "traditional" employment relationship in which workers are more or less permanently employed by a single employer and regularly work forty or so hours per week. This paper focusses attention on the "Baker Street irregulars" of the labour market, to use a Sherlockian analogy.

An Analysis of Dual-Earner Families in Canada

The aim of this paper is to provide a general overview of dual-earner families in Canada. This paper is primarily a survey paper which provides an analysis of the existing literature and data on this topic. Unfortunately, little research has been done in Canada on dual-earner families specifically. However, much research has been undertaken with respect to the labour force behaviour of married women.

The Evolution of Sexual Harassment Case Law in Canada

In this paper, Deborah Ann Campbell takes a look at the issue of sexual harassment in the Canadian workplace. Once considered to be an accepted part of a woman's job — something she just had to put up with — the author reflects on the changing legal and social attitudes towards sexual harassment. This report traces the evolution of sexual harassment case law in Canada, to illustrate how the fundamental issues were resolved. The emphasis is on Ontario human rights cases and Canadian arbitration cases.

Settlement Methods in Ontario Collective Bargaining 1970-1973

This paper analyzes the methods by which settlements were arrived at in more than 1400 Ontario collective agreements during the years 1970-1973 and discusses some of the implications of these patterns. The analysis is based on information published jointly by the Federal and Ontario Departments of Labour, covering settlements involving more than 250 employees in industries other than construction.

The Road Ahead in Industrial Relations

This is a reprint of the closing keynote address presented at the special one-week Industrial Relations Seminar of the Industrial Relations Centre, Queen's University on October 22-27, 1972. The author is Judge, District Court, District of Parry Sound and Chairman, Ontario Labour-Management Arbitration Commission. Judge Little is well known for his valuable contributions as chairman of arbitration boards and as a member of various public bodies in the field of Canadian industrial relations.

Long-Run Changes in the Labour Share of National Income in Canada, 1926-1966

This monograph examines the long run behaviour of the labour share of national income in Canada. The unincorporated business income is divided into labour income and non-labour income, in order to examine the impact of such a division on the stability of the labour share. Since there have been significant inter-industry shifts in Canada over the past four decades, the monograph also analyzes the influence of these shifts on the secular movement of the share of labour in national income.

Gender Differences in Union Membership Status: The Role of Labour Market Segmentation

The purpose of this paper is to study the key determinants of the union status of workers in Canada and to evaluate the relative significance of labour market segmentation by gender, in explaining the lower incidence of unionization among Canadian women. Using a unique micro data set, this study assesses the respective roles of demographic/human capital factors and the industry-occupation of employment in explaining gender differences in union membership in Canada.

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